Tutorials about Basic skills

Extensive example of using finite state machines

In this tutorial we will explore the use of finite state machines by looking at an example. The example we will use is a railway crossing. Main focus is this tutorial is to develop the code by using finite state machines as much as possible. In that way the advantages of using them becomes clear. […]

Oscilloscope measurements

An oscilloscope (in short ‘scope’) is a measurement instrument that shows a graph of how an electrical signal changes over time. And is often used when working with electronics. Before you can work with it, it’s important to have an introduction. The vertical axis of the graph represents voltage, and the horizontal axis represents time. […]

Using a lab DC power supply

This tutorial describes in short how to use the TTI lab power supply. But the information is also applicable for other DC power supplies. Features of the power supply. The lab power supply gives an adjustable stabilized DC (direct current; Dutch: ‘gelijkspanning’) output voltage between the specified range (e.g. 0 and 30 V DC). The […]

How to solder

Use solder specific for electronics. This solder has a flux core. Flux enables the solder to adhere to a clean metal surface and prevents the formation of oxides. Do not use soldering liquids. They are very aggressive for both iron and electronics and are not necessary for electronics soldering. They even damage component leads. Immobilize […]

Voltage divider

A voltage divider is a circuit that produces an output voltage (Vout) that is a fraction of its input voltage (Vin). Voltage division is the result of distributing the input voltage among the components of the divider. When calculating with impedance the principle is valid of any combination of two resistors, capacitors, and inductors. In […]

How to use a multimeter

A digital multimeter (short DMM) is a tool that assists in the process to explore what’s happening inside components or in a circuit. Or when debugging your circuit. This guide will shortly explain how to setup your Digital Multi Meter and how to use it to do different measurements. Important for correct understanding: Ohm’s principal […]

Reading Analog Sensors

This tutorial has been created to explain the fundamentals of using analog sensors with a microcontroller. In this tutorial we use a thermistor (temperature dependent resistor) as example for sensing temperature . Understanding how to read this sensor and how to connect it gives you the ability to adapt to other analog resistive sensors easily. […]

Arduino and multi-tasking

This tutorial shows by means of a few examples how to program an Arduino to handle multiple tasks simultaneously. This is achieved by implementing the concept of finite state machines. Using finite state machines helps in creating a clear and flexible program structure. What is the problem? Intelligent systems get input from environment through  (groups […]