### PWM

PWM what is it? PWM is the abbreviation of Pulse-Width Modulation. PWM is a method of reducing the average power delivered by an electrical signal. This is done by switching it on or off in discrete time intervals at a fast rate. The longer the signal is on compared to the off periods, the higher […]

### Battery choices

Determining battery capacity for your project For portable project choosing the right battery is not always easy. There are many choices e.g. alkaline batteries (AA, AAA, 9V block, etc.), lead acid, Li-ion, etc. With all different characteristics, different voltage, capacity, weight, size etc. This tutorial will guide you to choose a battery  in 4 steps […]

### How to desolder

When soldering a circuit, it is almost inevitable to make mistakes or make connections where there should not be one. Also when using circuits, components may break and need replacement. That means there is a need to repair soldered connections. In this tutorial we will explain a few of the most common tools and their […]

### Extensive example of using finite state machines

In this tutorial we will explore the use of finite state machines by looking at an example. The example we will use is a railway crossing. Main focus is this tutorial is to develop the code by using finite state machines as much as possible. In that way the advantages of using them becomes clear. […]

### Oscilloscope measurements

An oscilloscope (in short ‘scope’) is a measurement instrument that shows a graph of how an electrical signal changes over time. And is often used when working with electronics. Before you can work with it, it’s important to have an introduction. The vertical axis of the graph represents voltage, and the horizontal axis represents time. […]

### Using a lab DC power supply

This tutorial describes in short how to use the TTI lab power supply. But the information is also applicable for other DC power supplies. Features of the power supply. The lab power supply gives an adjustable stabilized DC (direct current; Dutch: ‘gelijkspanning’) output voltage between the specified range (e.g. 0 and 30 V DC). The […]

### How to solder

Use solder specific for electronics. This solder has a flux core. Flux enables the solder to adhere to a clean metal surface and prevents the formation of oxides. Do not use soldering liquids. They are very aggressive for both iron and electronics and are not necessary for electronics soldering. They even damage component leads. Immobilize […]

### Voltage divider

A voltage divider is a circuit that produces an output voltage (Vout) that is a fraction of its input voltage (Vin). Voltage division is the result of distributing the input voltage among the components of the divider. When calculating with impedance the principle is valid of any combination of two resistors, capacitors, and inductors. In […]

### How to use a multimeter

A digital multimeter (short DMM) is a tool that assists in the process to explore what’s happening inside components or in a circuit. Or when debugging your circuit. This guide will shortly explain how to setup your Digital Multi Meter and how to use it to do different measurements. Important for correct understanding: Ohm’s principal […]